The ancient trade hub of Tagar

A couple of years ago, I visited number of Buddhist rock cut temples, located in remotest corners of the Western Ghat and Satmala mountain ridges in India. All of them had been once large Buddhist monasteries, housing a large number of Buddhist monks. These rock cut temples can be divided into two groups based on their locations. First is the southern group of consisting monasteries at Karle'n, Bhaje, Shelarwadi, Junnar, Kondane and so on. The other group, which I call as Northern Group, consists of monasteries at Nashik, Pitalkhore and the world famous monastery of Ajanta.
As per tenets of the Buddhist religion, the monks were not allowed to have any assets and the food as well as clothes they wore, were to be obtained from the society in form of alms. A question naturally comes in mind as to how these monasteries,established around beginning of our era, could have survived, having located themselves in such remote mountain valleys? In the year 1955, writing in a research paper, published in the Journal of the Bombay branch of the Royal Asiatic society, an eminent scholor, Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi, came up with a simple answer to this question. He explained that the monasteries were located, where they are, because the trade routes passed by and the larger monastery complexes are found invariably near the junction of such routes. This leads us to another question as to with whom and what kind of trade was going on along these routes so as to necessitate establishment of such large number of monasteries in the region, which according to Kosambi served in many ways to help the traders? It is a well known fact that this substantive trade was mainly carried out with the Roman empire.
Gaius Plinius Secundus (CE 23 – CE 79), better known as Pliny the Elder ( a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire) has commented while remarking about the adverse balance of trade of the Roman empire: “This is the price we pay for our luxuries and our women. At the last reckoning one hundred million sesterces are taken away by India, Seres and Arabia.” Every year up to 40 ships carried luxury goods consisting of half the export trade of Rome between Rome and India. The imports from India included spices, pearls, muslin,ivory etc, while exports to India were very few and consisted mostly of wine, musical instruments, singing boys and dancing girls. The balance of trade was so adverse that Rome had to pay in Gold Bullion to India every year.
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.' is an ancient Greek text written between 1st and 3rd centuries CE, perhaps as important a book as the journal of Marco Polo. This book describes navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Describing the nature of trade, Periplus says;
imported into this market-town, are Wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean (from Laodicea on Syrian coast) and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, antimony, gold and silver. coin, on which there is a profit, when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, tine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves,and the choicest ointments. There are exported from these places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper, agate and carnelian and such other things as are brought here from the various market towns.”
Periplus also tells us the names of the ports where, Roman ships birthed; the northernmost being at Bhadoch (Barygaza) at the mouth of river Narmada. It says that the region south of Bhadoch is known as Southern Country or “Dakshinadesha” (Dachinabades). There are number of ports (market-towns) in the southern country such as Sopara (Suppara), Kalyan (Celliana), Sashti (Sandares) and Chaul (Semylla).
But, where were the market towns from where the to be exported goods dispatched and imported goods received. Periplus gives names of two important towns.
Among the market towns of Dachinabades, there are two of special importance; Paethana (Pratisthan or Paithan of today), distant about twenty days journey south of Barygaza (Bhadoch): beyond which about ten days journey east, there is another very great city, Tagara. These (Goods) are brought down to Barygaza from these places by wagons and through the great tracts without roads, from Paethana, carnelian in great quantity and from Tagara much common cloth, all kinds of muslins and mallow (rough) cloth and other merchandise brought there locally from the regions along the sea coast. And the whole course to the end of Damirica (country of the Tamil people) is seven thousand stadia (about one tenth of mile): but the distance is greater to the coast country.”
Periplus does not speak about “in land” trade routes, but with Kosambi's contention that the Buddhist rock cut monasteries were all constructed near the trade routes, we can think of two trade routes, both originating either in Pratisthan or Tagar. The southern route came to Junnar city and from there crossed the difficult mountain region through passes to go to southern ports like Kalyan or Choul. The northern route passed along Ajanta, Kannad pass near Pitalkhore caves to Bhadoch.

Great trade highway of the Satavahana kingdom ( 200 BCE-300 CE)

Periplus also tells us that Tagar was the important market town for merchandise originating on east coast of India. Sir James Cambell outlines some of these trade routes in Gazatteer of Bombay Presidency Vol. 16 pp.181. He says;
The remark in Periplus that many articles brought into Tagar from the parts along the coast were sent by wagons to Bhadoch seems to show that Tagar was then in communication with the Bay of Bengal and lay on the line of traffic with the far east, which then made Masulipatan so important a trade centre and in later times enriched Malkhet, Kalyan, Bidar, Golkonda,,and Haidarabad. ”

It was J.F Fleet, (John Faithfull Fleet, C.I.E (1847 – 1917) an English civil servant with the Indian Civil Service), who traced in his article written in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1901, pp. 517-552; the trade routes the first starting at Masulipatam (16d 11' N., 81d 8' E.), and the second from Vinukonda ( 16d 3' N., 79d 44' E.), joining about 25 miles south of Hyderabad (this place is probably Kondapur, where ancient ruins from first century have been excavated), and proceeding through Tagar, Paithan, and Daulatahad ( Devagiri near Aurangabad), to Markinda (in the Ajanta Hills). Here the main difficulties began through the Western Ghats, over the 100 miles to Bhadoch. This was the great highway of the Satavahana kingdom, and its natural terminus was at Kalyan.
Around this period, the political situation in the Deccan had become highly turbulent with Saka Satrap Nahapana's forces having captured major chunks of Satavahana empire and had gained control over coastal areas and the ports like Kalyan. This fact is confirmed in Periplus. J.F Fleet comments that the obstruction of Kalyan port by the Saka power in Gujarat had forced the Greek merchants to take the tedious overland extension of the route, through the mountains, (Ajanta-Pitalkhore) to Bhadoch.
We can get a fairly good idea about the trade between Rome and Satavahana empire from above mentioned facts. We can exactly locate and physically identify today all the places mentioned in Periplus, except for the prosperous trading hub city of Tagar. 

From the historical records, it is evident that “Tagar” was an important trading center, where goods produced on east coast of India were procured and traded with the Greek or Roman traders. Unlike other places on the Satavahana period trade routes, which can be physically identified with the places existing today, “Tagar” remained illusive. Indian archaeologists remained greatly puzzled for more than a century about the identity of this ancient city.
Tagar” remained an important city for at least thousand more years since the Satavahana days. I quote from J.F Fleet's (a British officer in Indian civil service) article written in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1901, in which he says;
  • The city is mentioned by Greek geographer Ptolemy, who, writing about the middle of the second century CE assigned to it a certain latitude and longitude, which have the effect of placing it about eighty-seven miles towards the north-east from another place, mentioned by him as Baithana, which his details would locate about 270 miles on the east-north-east of Barygaza.
  • A Western Chalukya record of 612CE specifies Tagara as the residence of the person to whom the grant of a village, registered in that charter, was made.
  • A record of 997CE describes the Śilāhāra prince Aparājita, of the Northern Koṅkaṇ, as Tagara-pura-paramēśvara, or “ supreme lord of the town of Tagara,” giving to him a hereditary title commemorative of the place which his family claimed as its original home.
  • Another record dated 1058CE from the period of Śilāhāra kings, similarly applies to Mārasiṁha, of the Karhāḍ branch of the family, the title of Tagara-puravar-ādhīśvara, or “ supreme lord Tagara, a best of towns, an excellent town, a chief town;” and it further describes his grandfather Jatiga II. more specifically, but less accurately, as Tagara-nagara-bhūpālaka, or “ king of the city of Tagara.”
One of the earliest attempts to identify Tagara with an existing place was made by Francis Wilford in 1787 when he identified Tagara as Devagiri or Daultabad. Hundred years later, J. Burgess in his book, Cave temples of India, published in 1880, mentioned that the present city of Junnar was probably Tagara of the Greek writers. J. F. Fleet, appointed as Assistant Political Agent in Kolhapur state and the Southern Maratha Country in 1875 identified during or after his tenure, “Tagar” with Kolhapur city, also known as “Karaveer.”
In his paper published in 1955, DD Kosambi agreed that the published argument for Junnar; that Tagar is derived from Trigiri and there are three mountains in Junnar, is almost feeble. Nonetheless he agreed with this identification for the simple reason that if Junnar was not the same place as Tagara, it would mean that the Graeco-Roman traders from whose accounts, both the Periplus and Ptolemy drew their main information, did not see it fit to mention the greatest Deccan trade centre of that time; a thought that is rather hard to believe. Samuel Clark Laeuchli in a paper written in 1981, contradicts Kosambi's argument and says that perhaps Junnar was identified in classical documents by some other name like “Omenogara”, and that is why no mention of Junnar is observed in these documents.
It was J.F.fleet again, who suggested in an article written in “ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society” July 1901 issue, that perhaps a village of present times, known by the name of “Ter” might be identified with ancient “Tagar, “ because of the fact that this village is about 95 miles southeast of Paithan, and agrees substantially with the distance and direction given in the Periplus text. From Bhadoch to Paithan, the actual distance by road, is about 240 miles, and from Paithan to Ter it is 104 miles, being 20 and 9 days' journey of 12 miles per day respectively. This identification of “Tagar” is now more or less universally accepted.
J. F. Fleet, after this identification, requested Henry Cousens, Superintendent, Archaological Survey of India- Artist and Archaological Photographer- to possibly visit the village of “Ter” to ascertain, whether any remains or indications of great age upon the spot to support his identification. Cousens did make a flying visit to the village of “Ter,” located about 48 Km to the east of Barshi town- famous as a cotton collecting centre in Solapur District, in the beginning of November 1901. He was however disappointed that no direct evidence of the identification was found. He could only confirm that it was an ancient site containing early Hindu, jain and Buddhist remains.
Photo courtesy Santosh Dahiwal

Photo courtesy Santosh Dahiwal

 Photo courtesy Santosh Dahiwal

His trip however did not go waste, as he found right in the middle of the village' a structure that could be called as the earliest structural temple in Western India, originally a Buddhist brick chaitya, later appropriated by the Vaishnavas, for the worship of one of Vishnu's avataras, or incarnations, Trivikrama.

The Trivikrama temple remains today the single most important signpost of its glorious past. It has remained in good condition only because of its conversion to a Hindu temple, which is the primary reason for its perfect preservation. 

Cousens describes the structure in these words:
The building consists of the vaulted chaitya with a flat-roofed hall before it. The former measures 31 feet long by 33 feet high. It is just a plain copy in brick of the rock cut Chaityas, whose wagon -vaulted roof rises to the ridge on the outside and is comnpleted with an apsidal end. The facade above the hall roof is a rough counterpart of that of the rock-cut Vishawakarma cave at Elora, excepting perhaps the little niche holding the Hindu image (idol), which is probably a later addition. There was in all likelihood a small window here to let light into the interior. Heavy mouldings around the base of the walls and the eaves, with slender pilasters between them are the only decoration on the outside walls, over which was a coating of plaster. There are no pillars within the Chaitya, its small size not requiring the lotus ornament upon some of the sculptured stone fragments is very similar to what is found upon the Sanchi Stupa and that which stood at Amaravati near Bezvada (Vijayawada). ”
Another complete give away here is the decoration upon the exterior of both shrine and outer “Mandapa” of heavy roll mouldings, which is known as “Sanchi railing.” Any of the readers who has visited Rock cut temples in Maharashtra, would immediately identify them belonging to the Buddhist Hinayana period.
Cousens' description leaves no doubt in reader's mind at all, that the Trivikram temple structure was definitely a Buddhist structure built much before and later converted into a Hindu temple. In his report he says and I quote;

"Taking all these points into considerations, I do not think we can place the Ter Chaitya later than the fourth century, it is possible it may be much older" 

Facade of the arched dome of the  Trivikram temple has surprising resemblance with Chaitya from Hinayan period cut temples like Bhaje. Surely Ter was the best candidate for being the ancient city of Ter.
Cousens also visited another temple in the village, that of “Uttareswara.”The evidence that he found there also augmented the theory of the village having its origins to first few centuries of our era. Excavations carried out later, by ASI, more than adequately proved it that Ter indeed was the ancient Tagar. 

The “Uttareshwara” temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva is in utter ruins today except for the sanctum, housing the Shiva Linga. A lone door frame, that once formed the part of the outer entrance still stands. In 1901, when Cousens visited this temple, it was in a slightly better condition and allowed Cousens to draw a few conclusions. He says;
The Uttareshwara and an accompanying temple of Kaleshwara ( which now seems to have disappeared) are very old shrines built in moulded or carved brick, the decoration being carried out in the same style as we find it in stone in the old temple of Kailasa at Elora or the oldest temples in Pattadakal. Another sign of great age is the absence of stone in their construction,” he further adds that the temple appears to be showing a somewhat later period than that of Buddhist Chaitya or the Trivikram temple.”
But, it is the lone door frame that is of special interest. On the both sides of the door frame, elaborate creeper designs have been carved on the outer side, Next to it, are the carvings, depicting musicians playing on musical instruments,on the right side of the entrance, whereas on the left we can see devotees at worship. Two pillasters are seen next to the door. Some swan figures decorate the lower part. Over the cornice, there are several carved figures. Cousens has identified these with Brahma, Shiva and some attendants. All these figures are not uncommon or unusual for a Shiva temple, but what is most unusual is the design pattern below this band of figures. Cousens describes this design in these words;
Beneath this very remarkable band of figures is a deeply projecting quarter round roll cornice, decorated along its front, at intervals with boldly cut little Chaitya Arch ornaments, Four in all. These are cut with with great vigour and depth; ”
The presence of Chaitya arches in Shiva temple is just unexplainable and makes Cousens wonder; “ Can it possibly have been a late Buddhist temple?
It is no wonder that he was most impressed with Ter and says at the end of his report after visiting several other temples in the area:
My visit was very short, as I was only able to spare a few days. I certainly went unprepared to find so much within twelve miles of Dharashiva, a place at which a camp was pitched under Dr. Burgess for some days in December 1975.”
Once “Ter” came on the radar of Archaeological Survey of India as an historic site, number of excavations were carried out in the village in the years 1957-58; 1966-67 to 1968-69; 1974-75; 1987-88; 1988-89 along with one by Maharashtra State Archeology Department in 1987-88.
The 1957-58 expedition did not find much, no structures were unearthed. Only thing they found was that the site was under occupation between 400 BCE to 400CE. The other antiquities that were found included forty one copper coins, mostly round but of varying sizes, stone querns and millers, iron objects like lamps, arrow- and spear-heads and knife-blades, bone points and beads and bangles of terracotta, shell, glass and stone. Noteworthy was also the discovery of charred grains of rice, wheat and pulses.

The next or 1966-67 expedition was more rewarding as can be seen by the report of ASI, that says;
Both vertical and horizontal digging was under taken; the purpose of the latter was to ascertain the mode of living, house-plans, etc. of the Satavahana period. Horizontal excavation revealed the base of a large brick stupa, 26 m. in diameter, and resembling a chakra on plan; it had circular ribs of brick with eight spokes and four ayaka platforms and a pradakshina-patha. The stupa can be dated to the first half of the second century A.D. on the basis of an inscription recording the names of masons and a coin of Pulumavi. Of the same date, an apsidal brick temple with a stupa within and wooden mandapa in front was also discovered. Evidence for its being repaired thrice was also available. The structure could also be dated on the basis of a coin of Pulumavi Son of great king Goutamiputra Satavahana). Other antiquities comprised terracotta and kaolin figurines with typical ornaments and hair-dress, terracotta lamps, bangles, ear-rings, Roman clay bullae, a terracotta
disc representing Sun-god; a lion carved in shell, a Roman glass bottle of the Medit- erranean type and beads of various shapes in carnelian, agate, lapis lazuli and shell.”

This expedition was continued next year, the report for which says;

As a result of this year's work a large stupa with a wheel-shaped plan was exposed. The excavation yielded many non-Indian objects such as carnelian seals, clay bullae (Seal for documents), special types of lamps, etc. As an evidence of the textile trade, a number of vats for dyeing cloth were excavated this year. Another important discovery was that of an apsidal temple built of bricks, located not far from the Trivikrama Temple. The temple enclosed a stupa which was repaired and buttressed, at least on two occasions, with a brick platform. The temple is dated by a coin of Pulumavi. Excavation in front of the temple showed that it had a wide porch supported by wooden pillars”

 A Terracotta Bullae

The next or 1974-75 expedition was taken up with a view: (i) to confirm the cultural sequence of the site; (ii) to assign the date of the kaolin and terracotta figurines; and (iii) to know the nature of pre-Satavahana habitation, if any. Of the several mounds on the site, Mound I, known as Lamture Mound because of the present ownership with 8-9 meter habitational deposit, was selected for excavation. The report says that the entire period of habitation could be divided in three phases datable between 3rd century BCE to third century CE.

Roman hand grinder
In the first phase, fragments of black polished ware discovered indicating the start of habitation. In the second phase a wooden barricade or a rampart constructed out of teak plates joined with teak pins was found to have existed around the habitat. The thirst phase appears to be most prosperous one. The report says about this phase;

all the typical kaolin and terracotta figurines, beads and pieces of worked ivories as also black-and-red ware came from this phase, along with coins of Satakarni and subsequent kings of the Satavahana dynasty. The prosperity was further reflected in the find of red polished ware, amphorae and scores of terracotta bullae. The structures of this period were constructed of baked bricks with floors of hydraulic lime-mortar, tiled roofs and attached soakage wells of terracotta rings.”

 A stone die
The study also confirmed that this particular habitation seems to have had come to an end around third century CE. Report says further that no finds of period subsequent to this were encountered in the trenches of mound I.


The next expedition was conducted in 1987-88 by the Department of Archeology and Museums, Government of Maharashtra, in a plot of land with survey No. 142/2, 250 meters away from the northern bank of the river to ascertain the nature of an accidentally exposed brick built tank. The tank, measures 12 X 12 X 3 meters and is built of burnt bricks with mud mortar and has two approaches with steps each at south and east. Inlets to the tank were provided at different levels throughout the height of the tank. The base is paved with bricks. On the northern side, an apsidal structure, facing east, built in bricks was found. Since the village is situated on banks of Terna river, it becomes obvious that this tank must have been used to store excess river water during rainy season and used throughout the year.

Excavated tank in Ter
(Photo- Times of India)

On the east of the tank, few small oval shaped pits were exposed. The pits were filled with ash and coal. The walls of the pits were burnt red. One of the pits contained two bones having cut-marks and a stone. From the same trench mud pallets and broken figure of Lajjagauri (Goddess of fertility, normally having a female body sans head) were found
Area where excavations were carried out
Photo courtesy Santosh Dahiwal

A 1959 report by B.N. Chapekar has to say this:
The figurines help to a large extent to assess the cultural advance of the contemporary people. The hair was bifurcated in the middle. Sometimes, it was arranged in a high-fan shape at the back of the head.... This coiffure marks, in particular, those figurines which are nude and have blunt face without distinct features. Another mode consisted of three fillets coming from head down on the back and then turning upwards... Ornaments were used by both men and women... Nude female figures are generally unadorned. This distinctive feature suggests the possibility of the figures representating some cult asssociation....”

On the western side remains of a structure, square in plan, marked with white deposit were exposed. In this structure a small kunda measuring 55 x 55 x 70 cm, containing 70 bases of bowls, with flared mouth, of medium fabric red ware were collected. Remains of brick-lined drainage were also exposed on the western side of the plan. From the plan, 352 bases of bowls with flared mouths
and from the drainage 78 bases were collected. In one of the trenches on the northern side a structure measuring 10-50 x 10-50 m was exposed.
Ivory figurine


The above description very much reminds me of what excavations at Kondapur had revealed. This is what was found there.
The new excavations done at Kondapur now, have brought to light religious practices of people living in Deccan at the beginning of our Era. The new series of excavations are headed by G. Maheswari, Superintending Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India, with a team of about 15 members. Some 45 labourers have been hired to excavate the ancient remains with utmost care. The main discovery at the excavation site includes some brick structures found in the western extreme of the main mound, which yielded authentic evidence of a Vedic or fire worshipping sect. It's a vast complex having a circular shrine facing south with one entrance and surrounded by rectangular chambers and fire altars , three metres in depth, having 37 courses of burnt bricks of different shapes -- triangular and sand clock-shaped, behind the chambers. These supposedly fire altars have yielded significant evidence of fire activities in them along with five numbers of pots stamped with impressions of a trident. Apart from this, the whole temple complex yielded plenty of animal bone pieces, perhaps for sacrificial purposes and related pottery articles such as bowls, sprinklers, spouted vessels and iron implements like spear heads and knives. The kings obviously performed the ‘yagnas’ at these altars and sacrificed animals to propitiate the goddess or seek a male heir. A lime and clay image of a Brahmin, probably the Raja Guru, with a thick sacred thread, embracing the king, along with many silver and gold-plated coins and terracotta seals bearing images closely resembling Roman Emperor Tiberius have also been found. This image shows clearly the status enjoyed by Brahmin priests.



Terracotta figurine

Did the Satavahana period people worship any idols besides Vedic sacrifices at the fire altar? Kondapur excavations provide a clear cut answer. In the vicinity of the circular structure, images of nude women adorned with jewels, which are known as Lajja Gouri (Goddess of fertility) have been found with a few cult objects made of iron. This clearly proves that the goddess of fertility was worshiped here.

I think, the resemblance and similarity between Ter and Kondapur is obvious. There can be no doubt that they ware well connected and people in both places followed common religious practices.A 1959 report by B.N.Chapekar confirms this and I quote;
Figurines from the two provenances (Ter and Kondapur) bear closet resemblance in technique and style. Possibly a terracotta industry flourished at the two sides which were commercially connected with each other presumably by virtue of their geographical proximity; or the terracottas from the two places were exported to an outside but common market place.”



Goddess of fertility

Other antiquities collected at Ter include beads of semi-precious stones, shell bangles, decorated bone, ivory pieces, broken stone sculptures, and ivory comb having depiction of a royal couple attended by female attendants on one side whereas on the other side is the Figure of Lakshmi (Goddess of wealth). Stylistically the carving can be dated to first century AD.

ASI report remarks that this excavation revealed a complex of religious structures of first century AD in which a tirthakunda, an apsidal plan, fire place, offering bowls played an important pan. This was the first time that a secondary burial from early historical level, showing the continuity of the protohistoric tradition has been reported.
In 1986, an inscribed pillar was found while ploughing an area marked as Survey.No. 406/1 and 406/2. Excavation was taken up in the area in 1988-89. The site is located two and half km south-west of village, 1875 m north of the river Terna and 20 m above the river. A structure whose plan could not be ascertained due to its disturbed nature was discovered but it appears to be an apsidal plan. Few ovoid pits were observed possibly, meant for the pillars. A limestone sculpture of a male (34 X 17 X 10 cm in full relief was found. He is showing wearing a dhoti tied with plain square band and adorned with necklace, ear ornaments and a flat headgear. The proper right hand is akimbo while the left touches the crest of the forehead band, apparently decorated with incised diamonds. The figure is provided with a 3 cm high pedestal. The sculpture is somewhat crude. Similar type of representation in kaolin and terracotta, were reported in large numbers from this site. A broken 1.10 m high limestone pillar, rectangular (44 X 34 cm) in section, was found embedded in a trench, decorated with half lotus and one of its sides showed the decorated motifs having criss-cross design. A small rectangular brick structure having single layer of bricks was exposed. The purpose of the structure could not be ascertained.

Roman Terracotta Bullae

I have purposely given detailed description of all the excavations conducted at Ter and the finds thereof just to emphasize the fact that it was an important link in the trade with Rome. The State archaeological department runs a local museum at Ter where 23,852 artefacts line up the shelves. The cultural give and take between Ter and Rome is clear from this museum.

Wine cask

Many of the artefacts in the museum have been collected by Ramlingappa Lamture, a grocer who had a passion for the region’s history and tried to collect and preserve artefacts dug up by village children every now and then from their playgrounds. It was with Lamture’s assistance that the archaeological department was able to set up the museum. He not only donated his entire collection but also convinced his fellow villagers to give up priceless ancient coins and artefacts, The museum is named after him. Ramlingappa's grandson, Shri. Revansiddha Lamture, also has a personal collection.

  Ter Museum

From the discoveries of the structures and the artefacts found, it is obvious that the town population consisted of proponents of Buddhist as well as Vedic religions, besides Mother Goddess idol worshiping. Some of the figurines found here and at Kondapur, have such striking similarity that it becomes evident that these places were well connected.

Excavations at Kondapur

After span of 40 years, in a welcome step, Directorate of Archeology and Museums, Maharashtra state has decided to restart excavations again at Ter. ASI has granted the archaeological license to them this month (January 2015). They have designated four sites where work will begin soon. Readers must have realised by now that the site at Ter is perhaps one of the most important sites that would enable us better to understand history of the Deccan in the Satavahana period. It is important to protect the site and preserve it for the future generations.


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